Rugs: North American Rugs - Navajo rugs, American Indian rugs and native American rugs
North American is the name given to flat weave rugs and blankets woven by Native Americans in the Central Western areas of the US, mainly in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado. These rugs are better known as Navajo rugs.
The weaving of Navajo rugs is the continuation of a long tradition of excellent craftsmanship that dates back nearly three centuries.
It is believed the Navajos learned the craft from the Pueblo Indians around 1700, as early examples of Navajo weaving show the close parallels between the two groups. The principal difference between Navajo and Pueblo weaving is that the Navajos used wool, while the Pueblos used cotton.
In the mid 1800s, the Navajos started using dye sources and yarns from the Europeans, especially the Germans and Spanish. Along with dyes and commercial yarn, the Europeans brought designs that could be incorporated into the flat weaves of the Navajos. These were usually Oriental patterns, which the Europeans apparently couldn't get enough of.
From the Navajo's own designs, the most famous examples were the 'Chief Blankets', which were worn on the shoulders of the tribe's chief. These items were extremely popular with the other Plain's Indians.
Navajo weaving changed radically in the last twenty years of the 19th century. Commercial ready-to-use yarns were available in a variety of colors, and by 1890 the Navajo Indians were weaving mainly for the trading posts and white tourists.
The traders were a great influence on the weavers, and the requests for pillow covers and bed covers to decorate white homes resulted in a proliferation of quickly woven, inferior pieces.
By 1890, after many years of blankets and bed coverings, white settlers were demanding covering for the floor. The Navajo rugs were born as the Indians were quick to oblige.
The Indians were now weaving less of their traditional simple and abstract geometric designs and more American pictorials designs including patriotic patterns and railroad scenes and houses. The traditional rugs are virtually lost and very rare today and designers seem todesire their 'Aztec' look for modern settings.
There are a few settlements that might still be weaving Navajo rugs, but much like all the other aspects of the Indians' culture, the Navajo rug is but a faint memory to them.
Outlines the materials and rules necessary to organize and maintain a genealogy book or chart; also includes how to record data properly and tips on where to get started researching. Is there royalty in your bloodline? As interest in genealogy grows, the resources available are multiplying right along with it. Information is more widely accessible than ever before, but for beginners it can be a little confusing exactly how or where to start. The key to successfully discovering your roots is preparation and organization. The first thing one must do before stepping into the world of family history is make a notebook. Supplies can be obtained from a discount store or office warehouse. You will need: a three-ring notebook, dividers and/or tabs, pedigree charts, notebook paper, plastic slipcovers, pen and pencil, plastic pouch, and magnifying glass.
1. Purchase a three-ring binder. You will be surprised at how quickly you accumulate information, so do not skimp on size or quality. Make sure the metal rings meet evenly together, and clasp tightly. 2. Dividers and tabs: Dividers are necessary to separate the different family lines you research. You still need dividers to separate the different sources from where you glean your information. 3. Pedigree charts: Pedigree charts are available in Family History Kits and from genealogical organizations. These forms are a lateral representation of your family tree. Your name--along with your parents, grandparents, and great grandparents--can be listed with space permitted for personal information such as birth, death, and marriages. 4. Notebook paper is essential for jotting down notes and references. It is also necessary to create a research log (with names, dates, and sources researched) to prevent duplication of your inquiries.
5. Plastic sheet covers are sheets that are sealed around both sides and the bottom so that documents or photographs may be slipped inside from the top. Charts and computer printouts also benefit since no holes have to be punched into the paper. Make sure your sheet covers have pre-punched holes and fit correctly inside your notebook. 6. A sharp No. 2 pencil or quality ink pen that will not smear is essential for note taking. Notes should be written neatly the first time so that they do not have to be redone. Printing is preferred over cursive because it is easier to read. 7. A small plastic pouch with a zipper is a handy accessory to have in your notebook. This item totes your writing utensils and also can carry change necessary for copy machines and order forms. 8. A small magnifying glass is a helpful tool when searching through old or illegible documents. A genealogy notebook is best kept in alphabetical order. Write each surname on a tab or divider. Behind each section, add paper, pedigree charts (filled out as far as possible to the best of your knowledge), and a few plastic slipcovers. Do this behind every divider to create a unit for each family line. Do not forget to add a research log in the beginning of your notebook to keep track of your work and expenditures.
Once organized, familiarize yourself with the written formats used by genealogists. In most instances, you will find names, dates, and places written the same way. Names are recorded with the last name first, followed by the first name and middle initial. Nicknames are often added last in parentheses (for example: Doe, John A).
Dates are written with the day first, followed by the first three letters of the month, and then by the complete year (for example: 25 Dec 1999). Places have a preferred format as well. First listed is the city or town, followed by the county, and then the state and country (for example: Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee, USA).
Once you have prepared your notebook and recorded all the information available from your relatives and personal records, you are ready to begin searching national and state archives to find your distant relatives. Again, preparation is the key. Study and learn about the different resources available to family historians and where to get them.
Some of the most helpful resources available are probate records, wills, periodicals and newspapers, and census information; cemetery, military, birth, death, and marriage records; and christening, baptism, and congregation indexes. Do not forget the Internet with its genealogical sites, clubs, and message boards. Many churches and states are now making available online many of the records mentioned above. These wonderful opportunities save time and money and are good ways to meet others searching for the very same family members you are.
With a little groundwork and a lot of enthusiasm, you can be your own family historian. It is an exciting hobby and will be of value to you and generations to come as you discover your ancestral roots.
Enjoying the outdoors can be a fun experience with some planning and preparation. Here a some tips to ensure a memorable camp out.
Enjoying the outdoors, cooking over a flame, sleeping on the hard ground in a nylon tent can be fun for some and a make work project for others. Eating healthy can be a task when out in the wilderness. The important key to fun camping is planning and organization.
After several grueling camp outs I came to realize that it could be enjoyable if I had just planned more efficiently.
Here are a few ways to make your camp outs more desirable.
Firstly, prepare as much food as you can at home. Mix ground beef for burgers, shape the patties then lay each burger on a cut square of wax paper. Then stack them on top of one another and store them in freezer bags. By doing this a couple days ahead of time, the meat will be frozen and will keep the other foods in your camping cooler chilled. Another idea is to marinate chicken and store it in freezer bags also. Try to pack dry goods as opposed to fresh. You can still eat healthy; you just have to be more selective when shopping for your trip. Fruits, such as apples, oranges and bananas don?t require refrigeration so you don?t have to worry about spoilage. Wash potatoes at home and wrap them in foil for baking instead of having to do it at the campsite. Many vegetables are available in canned form, also ravioli and stews. I found the best way to keep my breads and snacks fresh was to pack them in a rubber tote. This is a handy way to carry all of your dry goods instead of plastic bags.
Coleman propane stoves are a great asset for camping. You will get much use out of it; they last for many years. It is much easier to cook on these since you can control the heat settings.
Remember to bring a large plastic tarp and rope for overhead if the weather turns ugly. Doing this when you arrive and set up your camp will alleviate getting soaked unexpectedly. As far as bedding goes, ?think flannel?.
Flannel sheets under your sleeping bag will you keep you warm and decrease the moisture. Also large foam mats will make your sleeping arrangements more comfortable.
Flashlights or a lantern are a necessary item for nights in the wilderness.
Bringing extra fire wood and fire starter, such as ZIP is a good idea. You never know if firewood will be scarce where you are camping.
Raincoats and rubber boots are a must to keep you dry, in case of bad weather.
A few more items to remember are toilet paper, a Frisbee and a first aid kit.
Following these guidelines will ensure a fun camping trip.
Camping food list
Here is a camping foods list of items you can find at your local grocer. It is not necessary to spend a lot of money on special freeze dried foods for your camping or backpacking adventure.
When someone thinks of camping and cooking over a campstove or a campfire the image comes to mind of a breakfast of eggs and bacon and cowboy coffee on the fire and a dinner of hearty chili or beef stew that has been tended for several hours by the cook.
Unfortunately, that image only works if you have a wagon, horse or large boat to carry all the cooking accoutrements such as cast iron Dutch ovens, a large cooler with lots of ice to keep things fresh and a supply of fresh foods. These things are heavy and most campers today who are out for the back country experience prefer to carry as light a load as possible.
This usually necessitates the use of commercial freeze-dried camping meals which are 1.)expensive, 2.) usually not enough for the number of servings listed on the package and 3.)relatively tasteless and heavy on the salt and carbs. It is not necessary to do this when, with a little careful planning and a thorough search of your local grocery store can reveal a cornucopia of good food stuffs for you to take on your camping, canoeing or back-packing trip. And it doesn't have to rely on Ramen noodles for three meals a day!
Your prime consideration is going to be weight. When you consider your food, remember that you will also be carrying clothes, sleeping bag, water purification system, Thermo-Rest type mattress and who knows what else. Somewhere in with all your gear you also have to carry enough nourishment and energy for the time you are out in the woods. More than likely you will be cooking on one of the micro cooking stoves that are on the market. These consist of one burner and primarily fulfill the purpose of boiling water. Most of your food will be of the dehydrated variety so the stove is perfect for this.
There are many cereals on the market that are light in weight. Cheerios are healthy and light. Pre-packaged hot cereals, like oatmeal and Cream of Wheat work really well. If you are really interested in also reducing paper containers and keeping the price of your groceries down, buying the cereal in bulk, measuring out each days' portion and mixing in dried milk and sugar in proportion and repackaging in Zip-Loc bags works very well. You can also mix in dried fruits such as raisins, dried cranberries or blueberries or what ever fruit works for you. When you add the boiling water to the warm cereals, the fruit will re-hydrate. Of course, with the cold cereals such as the Cheerios, you will use cold water with the powdered milk.
For your breakfast drinks, you can find Tang or the store variety of orange breakfast drink almost every where. Measuring out portions again and putting them in a Zip-Loc bag gives you a method of carrying enough for several days. It helps to write the proportion of water to mix on a small piece of paper and placing it inside the bag. It is now possible to find decent drinkable coffee in bags just like tea. However, instant coffe works just as well, and again, reduces the paper waste that needs to be disposed of either by carrying out or by campfire. Cremora is an acceptable creamer for your coffee and in some areas can be found in single serving packets.
Lunches can be interesting. For lightweight bread substitute crackers such as Wasa Bread or other crackers. These also have the added advantage of not getting stale as fast as regular bread. There are many types of cheeses that do not need refrigeration, as well as small packs of genoa salami or pepperoni. Peanut butter can be put in squeeze tubes, as well as jams or jellies. Always carry chocolate! It puts a nice finish on a meal and feels very luxurious. If you don't mind carrying a little extra weight, there are numerous makers of canned meat products such as liver pate, chicken spread or ham spread, and even tuna salad.
When it comes to dinners, you have a real opportunity to get creative. Always think "out of the box" when you look in the grocery store. Many of the rice and noodle companies make dried rice and noodle dishes that at home you may use as a side dish, but out in the woods, with the addition of chopped jerkey or additional cheese or the added small can of chicken chunks with sun-dried tomatoes, can be your main course. Remember to add some nibble items while things are cooking and you will find that the meal is quite filling. Single serving soups, such as Cup of Soup, are warming and a good way to soothe the hungry beast until dinner is ready.
The primary thing to remember when camping is that it is not a forever type of thing. After a few days you will be returning to civilization and the opportunity to eat a "real" meal. You will not die of malnutrition if you don't get all your daily requirements for a couple of days. Camping in the back country makes it necessary to concentrate on calories for energy first and foremost.
However, with the above tips for cooking while outdoors, you will find yourself around the campfire, warm and full and thinking, "It don't get no better than this!" because, as we all know, everything tastes better outdoors!
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