Rugs: North American Rugs - Navajo rugs, American Indian rugs and native American rugs
North American is the name given to flat weave rugs and blankets woven by Native Americans in the Central Western areas of the US, mainly in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado. These rugs are better known as Navajo rugs.
The weaving of Navajo rugs is the continuation of a long tradition of excellent craftsmanship that dates back nearly three centuries.
It is believed the Navajos learned the craft from the Pueblo Indians around 1700, as early examples of Navajo weaving show the close parallels between the two groups. The principal difference between Navajo and Pueblo weaving is that the Navajos used wool, while the Pueblos used cotton.
In the mid 1800s, the Navajos started using dye sources and yarns from the Europeans, especially the Germans and Spanish. Along with dyes and commercial yarn, the Europeans brought designs that could be incorporated into the flat weaves of the Navajos. These were usually Oriental patterns, which the Europeans apparently couldn't get enough of.
From the Navajo's own designs, the most famous examples were the 'Chief Blankets', which were worn on the shoulders of the tribe's chief. These items were extremely popular with the other Plain's Indians.
Navajo weaving changed radically in the last twenty years of the 19th century. Commercial ready-to-use yarns were available in a variety of colors, and by 1890 the Navajo Indians were weaving mainly for the trading posts and white tourists.
The traders were a great influence on the weavers, and the requests for pillow covers and bed covers to decorate white homes resulted in a proliferation of quickly woven, inferior pieces.
By 1890, after many years of blankets and bed coverings, white settlers were demanding covering for the floor. The Navajo rugs were born as the Indians were quick to oblige.
The Indians were now weaving less of their traditional simple and abstract geometric designs and more American pictorials designs including patriotic patterns and railroad scenes and houses. The traditional rugs are virtually lost and very rare today and designers seem todesire their 'Aztec' look for modern settings.
There are a few settlements that might still be weaving Navajo rugs, but much like all the other aspects of the Indians' culture, the Navajo rug is but a faint memory to them.
Humans have always used plant in one capacity or another. Plants are becoming known more and more for their vital usage in many arenas, including medicinal purposes. Plants are thought of mostly as growing and thriving in pleasant, sunny atmospheres; but many plants also can be found in areas that do not seen likely in promoting growth. All that is required for growth of plant life is air, sunlight, and soil. In Greenland, the Arctic poppy can be found, rising up out of massive layers of ice. Mountainsides are filled with large, colorful blooms, even when packed in heavy snow. On the other end of the temperate zone, many types of cacti are found in barren deserts that may go for many years with rainfall. Humans are very dependent upon plant life; without it, all would perish. Plants provide fuel, food, clothing, and even shelter, either directly or indirectly. The dependence upon corn and wheat, major parts of life-giving nutrients, is not in doubt; but without grasses and grains that sustain livestock, which feed and clothe humans, they, too, would perish.
USES FOR PLANTS: FOOD The chief food plants in North America are cereal grains. The major types of grain crops include wheat, corn, rice, oats, barley, and rye. Next are legumes, such as peas, beans, soybeans, and peanuts. For centuries, people have used the herbs and spices derived from plants as seasonings for their food. Pepper and nutmeg are two examples of seasonings derived from dried fruit, while others such as sage and rosemary come from leaves. A common baking spice, cinnamon, is found in the stem of the plant. Even beverages come from plant life. By steeping plants in hot water, coffee, tea, and cocoa are produced. Nature makes many other beverages naturally, such as fruit juices, cider, and milk. CLOTHING Much of our clothing comes from the plants found in nature, such as cotton, the foremost fiber used to manufacture clothing. Synthetic fibers, too, such as rayon, are produced from plants; the cellulose required to manufacture the rayon is found in the cell walls of plants. PAPER Papyrus, a grasslike plant, was used more than four thousand years ago in the first endeavor, by Egyptians, to make paper. It is from this plant that paper has derived its name. The Chinese, around 100AD, invented a method of manufacturing paper that is still in use today. The fibers from the plant are placed in water, reduced to but a pulp. After the water has been sieved off, the remaining pulp is pressed, then allowed to dry to yield a very thin sheet of paper. Almost any plant that is found to be high in cellulose is considered excellent for making the pulp which produces paper, the most common today being trees such as aspen and pine varieties. SHELTER In many parts of the world wood is used for creating proper shelter against the elements. Items found in the wooded structures we call home are also made with wood, a plant product. Furniture, for example, is made up mainly of wood and cloth, from the fibers of plants. Walls in homes may be decorated with wallpaper, and many paints are derived from plant extracts. FUEL Green plants, which lived on the Earth very long ago, are the origin for the coal, oil, and gas that humans use for heating and cooking purposes. Compression and heat have converted these plants into fossil fuels. In Ireland, a common fuel is peat, which is formed by the same process as coal. The oldest form of fuel is wood, burned to create heat for warmth and for cooking. MEDICINES In ancient cultures, medicine men used the extracts from plant life to soothe and relieve aches and pains. In the very beginnings of Botany, doctors in both Europe and America researched herbs in their quest to cure disease. Many of the plants that were discovered by ancient civilizations are still in use today. The leaves of willows, which contain a compound very similar to aspirin, were chewed by Native Americans to relieve aches and pains. A major treatment in heart disease is digitalis, which is found in foxglove. The cinchona tree, found in South America, yields from its bark quinine, used to fight malaria. Even today plants are being discovered that yield important and much needed medicines. The periwinkle plant was discovered to have vincristine, a medicine that is effectively used to fight leukemia in children. Many other plants have proven invaluable as sources of vitamins, an important part of growth and proper development.
As detailed above, plant life is a very vital part of human life; without plants, both land and sea dwelling, human life could not be sustained.
It's important to apply make-up correctly in order to look your best. Follow these valuable instructions and learn how to properly apply pressed powder.
Pressed powder is a must for makeup wearers. It helps hide blemishes and control shine on extremely smooth areas of the face, such as the nose. It also helps keep oily skin in check. Pressed powder adds a finished appearance to the face, and it gives the skin a more even tone.
There are pressed powders available for oily skin as well as for sensitive skin. These products do a superb job of reducing shine caused by excessive oil, and they are gentle on the skin. Unscented pressed powder is available for those who are sensitive to fragrance. Pressed powder is available for every skin type and every skin tone.
Before applying pressed powder to the face, it's important to pick the proper shade for your individual skin tone. Translucent pressed powder is suitable for any skin tone since it is basically clear. If you don't want to add color to your face, and only want to control shine, this is the best option for you. Color names vary according to brand, but they range from extremely light shades to extremely dark shades. Try your best to match the color to your unique skin tone. Samples are often available to help you find the shade of pressed powder that's right for you.
Your skin tone may vary depending on the season. If you are tan during summer months, you will of course use a darker shade at that time. Keep a few different shades of pressed powder on hand so you can properly match your skin tone in summer, winter, spring, and fall. If you spend any time at all outdoors, your skin tone will certainly change with the seasons.
If you want to give your face a sculpted appearance, there are ways to apply pressed powder that will create various illusions. Minimize the appearance of a double chin by using a darker tone just under the jaw line. The artificial shadow created by the pressed powder will help to minimize the appearance of extra weight around the face.
You can make cheekbones appear more prominent without the aide of colored blush. Choose a shade of pressed powder that's one shade darker than your normal skin tone. Apply the pressed powder just below the cheekbones. Don't apply the powder past the pupil of each eye. Apply it just below the check bone under the center of each eye, and over to the hairline. Follow the contour of the cheekbones for proper placement. The use of pressed powder instead of blush gives the face a more natural appearance.
If your nose is wider than desired, try applying pressed powder that is one shade darker than your normal skin tone along the sides of the nose. Blend the edges well so the powder looks as natural as possible. Apply pressed powder that matches your skin tone to the rest of the nose. Don't over do it. You don't want to end up looking like a powdered donut!
It's a good idea to keep extra applicators on hand. After a while they will begin absorbing oils from the skin, and they will need to be replaced. If your applicator begins to look dirty or starts to tear, it's time for a new one. Pressed powder applicators are typically made of smooth terry cloth material, cotton, and polyester. Chances are you will go through at least two applicator pads before the pressed powder is used up.
Choosing the right pressed powder and applying it correctly will make the difference between looking naturally beautiful and looking unnaturally made-up. Practice makes perfect, and you may have to try a few different products before finding those that are just right for you.
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