Outlines the materials and rules necessary to organize and maintain a genealogy book or chart; also includes how to record data properly and tips on where to get started researching. Is there royalty in your bloodline? As interest in genealogy grows, the resources available are multiplying right along with it. Information is more widely accessible than ever before, but for beginners it can be a little confusing exactly how or where to start. The key to successfully discovering your roots is preparation and organization. The first thing one must do before stepping into the world of family history is make a notebook. Supplies can be obtained from a discount store or office warehouse. You will need: a three-ring notebook, dividers and/or tabs, pedigree charts, notebook paper, plastic slipcovers, pen and pencil, plastic pouch, and magnifying glass.
1. Purchase a three-ring binder. You will be surprised at how quickly you accumulate information, so do not skimp on size or quality. Make sure the metal rings meet evenly together, and clasp tightly. 2. Dividers and tabs: Dividers are necessary to separate the different family lines you research. You still need dividers to separate the different sources from where you glean your information. 3. Pedigree charts: Pedigree charts are available in Family History Kits and from genealogical organizations. These forms are a lateral representation of your family tree. Your name--along with your parents, grandparents, and great grandparents--can be listed with space permitted for personal information such as birth, death, and marriages. 4. Notebook paper is essential for jotting down notes and references. It is also necessary to create a research log (with names, dates, and sources researched) to prevent duplication of your inquiries.
5. Plastic sheet covers are sheets that are sealed around both sides and the bottom so that documents or photographs may be slipped inside from the top. Charts and computer printouts also benefit since no holes have to be punched into the paper. Make sure your sheet covers have pre-punched holes and fit correctly inside your notebook. 6. A sharp No. 2 pencil or quality ink pen that will not smear is essential for note taking. Notes should be written neatly the first time so that they do not have to be redone. Printing is preferred over cursive because it is easier to read. 7. A small plastic pouch with a zipper is a handy accessory to have in your notebook. This item totes your writing utensils and also can carry change necessary for copy machines and order forms. 8. A small magnifying glass is a helpful tool when searching through old or illegible documents. A genealogy notebook is best kept in alphabetical order. Write each surname on a tab or divider. Behind each section, add paper, pedigree charts (filled out as far as possible to the best of your knowledge), and a few plastic slipcovers. Do this behind every divider to create a unit for each family line. Do not forget to add a research log in the beginning of your notebook to keep track of your work and expenditures.
Once organized, familiarize yourself with the written formats used by genealogists. In most instances, you will find names, dates, and places written the same way. Names are recorded with the last name first, followed by the first name and middle initial. Nicknames are often added last in parentheses (for example: Doe, John A).
Dates are written with the day first, followed by the first three letters of the month, and then by the complete year (for example: 25 Dec 1999). Places have a preferred format as well. First listed is the city or town, followed by the county, and then the state and country (for example: Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee, USA).
Once you have prepared your notebook and recorded all the information available from your relatives and personal records, you are ready to begin searching national and state archives to find your distant relatives. Again, preparation is the key. Study and learn about the different resources available to family historians and where to get them.
Some of the most helpful resources available are probate records, wills, periodicals and newspapers, and census information; cemetery, military, birth, death, and marriage records; and christening, baptism, and congregation indexes. Do not forget the Internet with its genealogical sites, clubs, and message boards. Many churches and states are now making available online many of the records mentioned above. These wonderful opportunities save time and money and are good ways to meet others searching for the very same family members you are.
With a little groundwork and a lot of enthusiasm, you can be your own family historian. It is an exciting hobby and will be of value to you and generations to come as you discover your ancestral roots.
Diamond jewelry clarity is a quality of diamonds relating to the existence and visual appearance of internal defects of a diamond called inclusions, and surface defects called blemishes. Clarity is one of the four Cs of diamond grading, the others being carat, color, and cut. Inclusions may be crystals of a foreign material or another diamond crystal, or structural imperfections such as tiny cracks that can appear whitish or cloudy. The number, size, color, relative location, orientation, and visibility of inclusions can all affect the relative clarity of a diamond. A clarity grade is assigned based on the overall appearance of the stone under 10x magnification.
Most inclusions present in gem-quality diamonds do not affect the diamonds' performance or structural integrity. However, large clouds can affect a diamond's ability to transmit and scatter light. Large cracks close to or breaking the surface may reduce a diamond's resistance to fracture.
Diamonds with higher clarity grades are more valued, with the exceedingly rare "flawless" graded diamond fetching the highest price. However, minor inclusions or blemishes are sometimes considered to have some value, as they can be used as unique identifying marks analogous to fingerprints. In addition, as synthetic diamond technology improves and distinguishing between natural and synthetic diamonds becomes more difficult, inclusions or blemishes can be used as proof of natural origin.
Inclusions and blemishes
There are several types of inclusions and blemishes, which affect a diamond's clarity to varying degrees. Features resulting from diamond enhancement procedures, such as laser lines, are also considered inclusions and/or blemishes. Inclusions
Included crystals or minerals
The Gemological Institute of America (GIA), as well as other diamond grading agencies including the European Gemological Laboratory (EGL), American Gemological Society (AGS), and the International Gemological Laboratory (IGL) use a sliding grading scale based on descriptive terms of overall clarity. These grading agencies base their clarity grades on the characteristics of inclusions visible to a trained professional when a diamond is viewed from above under 10x magnification.
The diamond clarity rating in common use are :
FL - "flawless" in that no inclusions or blemishes are visible under 10 times magnification.
IF - "internally flawless" with no inclusions visible under 10 times magnification, only small blemishes on the diamond surface.
VVS1 and VVS2 - "very very slight" inclusions that are difficult to see under 10 times magnification. VVSA denotes a higher clarity grade than VVS2.
VS1 and VS2 - "very slight" inclusions and visible under magnification but invisible to the naked eye.
SI1 and SI2 - "slight inclusions" that may or may not be noticeable to the naked eye.
SI3 is a grade sometimes used in the industry, originally popularized by the European Gemological Laboratory (EGL). While intended as a range to include borderline SI2/I1 stones, it is commonly used to mean I1's which are "eye clean", that is, which have inclusions which are not obviously visible to the naked eye. Neither the GIA nor the American Gemological Society (AGS), assign this grade.
I1,I2 and I3 - "imperfect", with inclusions clearly visible to the naked eye. For I3, the inclusions impact the brilliance of the diamond and are large and obvious.
All grades reflect the appearance to an experienced grader when viewed from above at 10x magnification, though higher magnifications and viewing from other angles are used during the grading process. In "colorless" diamond, dark inclusions will tend to create the greatest drop of clarity grade. In other colors pale inclusions may have greater relief (may stand out more) and may cause a greater drop in grade.
Beyond the clarity grading terms, other considerations include the type, size and location of the "inclusion". Inclusions near or on the surface may weaken the diamond structurally. Depending on where the inclusion occurs in the cut diamond and how it is to be used, it may be possible to hide the inclusion behind the setting.
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